One of Napoleon's main domestic policies was to sign a concordat with the Catholic Church that, while restoring some of the church's power, meant that the church gave up its ability to control politics in France. Instead, the Vatican recognized the power of the Republic and officially relinquished lands that the church had lost earlier in the French Revolution. The concordat also allowed freedom of religion in France. While Catholicism was the religion of the majority of people in France, it was not the religion of the state.
The Napoleonic Code established five codes of laws: civil codes, commercial codes, penal codes, and codes of criminal and civil procedures. These codes provided all French citizens with the same basic rights and disallowed privileges based on birth. All citizens were allowed freedom of religion and the right to apply for government positions.
Napoleon also established a new educational system that afforded some education to girls (though not on the same level as boys). While primary schools were the responsibility of local areas, the state took over the control of secondary schools (while some were still operated by the church). Beyond secondary schools, 30 lycées were established, and scholarships were offered to make sure that talented students from all classes were able to secure the education necessary for future careers in government and the military.