Discuss the notion of metaphor, including metaphors and cultural knowledge, linguistic metaphors, conceptual metaphors, cognitive metaphors, and poetic metaphors with examples of use.
Metaphors, Cultural Knowledge and Linguistic Metaphors
Metaphors are inherently connected to cultural knowledge in the sense that some knowledge of a culture and its linguistic quirks is necessary to properly understand and use most metaphors. Conceptual and poetic metaphors are both connected to cultural knowledge such as language, the cultural meanings and interpretations of words, and the poetic use of certain phrases. In general, metaphors allow us to communicate abstract ideas in terms that are more concrete and thus easier to understand. All metaphors are linguistic elements, so a linguistic metaphor simply refers to the use of a comparison to express an abstract idea through more concrete language without the use of simile.
Conceptual/ Cognitive Metaphors
A conceptual metaphor is a rhetorical device that requires an understanding of one concept in the context of a different concept. These metaphors revolve around words that take on somewhat ambiguous associations or concepts. For example, saying that someone is "feeling up" today or that his or her spirits have "risen" is a conceptual metaphor. While up in its most literal sense applies to the concept of direction, it has also become associated with the concepts of happiness or improvement. Cognitive metaphor is another name for conceptual metaphor.
Metaphors are common devices in poems and literature. Keats used metaphors such as "beauty is truth, truth beauty" to communicate a comparison between two poetic concepts without the use of simile. Shakespeare is another poet who was famous for his use of poetic metaphors. A Shakespearean example of a poetic metaphor would be, "marriage of two minds."