Lincoln's plan for political Reconstruction is known to historians as the "ten percent plan." Essentially, Lincoln planned to readmit former Confederate states to the Union once ten percent of their registered voters from 1860 (the last election before secession) had accepted emancipation and pledged allegiance to the United States. States could then form new legislatures and write new constitutions, provided that these constitutions included slavery. This proposal was issued in 1863, and was an attempt to bring about the end of the war swiftly. However, it alienated many Republicans in Congress, who responded by passing the Wade-Davis bill one year later. This bill both added more stringent requirements for readmission and included more protections for the rights of freedmen. These two approaches would become the templates for Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction plans after Lincoln's death.