Since its inception, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) had been fairly moderate in advocating for labor. This was in large part because the AFL was essentially an organization of skilled trades, or crafts. Many of these organizations were reluctant to organize unskilled workers. Thus the AFL had always focused on "bread and butter unionism," negotiating for better working conditions, shorter hours, and higher pay. The Congress of Industrial Organizations courted a different membership, and therefore had different aims. Organized by United Mineworkers leader John L. Lewis, the CIO was an association of industrial workers, including unskilled workers. Formed amid the economic disaster of the Great Depression, the CIO had aims and tactics that were seen as more radical at the time. Lewis had long advocated strikes, including industry-wide strikes, as a tactic to bring management to the bargaining table. Still more radical was the Industrial Workers of the World, the IWW, or the "Wobblies." A far-left organization from its inception, the IWW saw labor disputes, including strikes, as a way to destroy the capitalist system, not negotiate. The Wobblies made inroads into heavy industry, including mining. Like the CIO, which came later, they tried to organize workers across industries. They also actively recruited African Americans and other racial minorities that were underrepresented in the labor movement. They thought that labor could not substantially better its lot under the capitalist system, and saw the kinds of labor negotiations pursued by other unions as essentially propping up that system.