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Weather is important in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, when not looking at the plot, given the impact it has on the characters of Victor and the Creature.
Victor suffers from many different illnesses over the course of the novel (brought on by the creation of the creature and the death's of his friend and family). It is nature which, many times, brings him out of his debilitating illnesses. That said, nature's first impact on him comes in the form of a storm. Victor first becomes intrigued by science through a "terrible thunderstorm" (seen in chapter two).
I remained, while the storm lasted, watching its progress with curiosity and delight.
The importance of weather here defines Victor's initial obsession with the elements.
As for the Creature, he was able to understand how the weather impacted the De Lacey's. He recognized how the winter made the ground hard and difficult to cultivate, how the rain was able to moisten the ground and soften it for planting and harvesting.
I found it was called when the heavens poured forth its waters. This frequently took place; but a high wind quickly dried the earth, and the season became far more pleasant than it had been.
In the quote above (from chapter twelve), the Creature realizes that change comes with different weather (important given his promise to leave the world of the humans and exist in the land of ice). The land of ice, with its blizzards and snow, is inhospitable and the Creature recognizes that this is where he belongs.
In the end, weather impacts both Victor and the Creature. Although not blatant, weather mirrors the feelings of both Victor and his "son."
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