I think that you could argue either side of this statement, depending on how the discipline is provided. Research shows that people who eat a healthy diet and maintain a healthy body weight are definitely at lower risk for type II diabetes and heart disease, which are two of the best-studied lifestyle diseases, later on in life. Consequently, you could argue that children who grow up with good eating habits are less likely to develop these diseases, provided they continue to embrace those eating habits in adulthood.
However, too harsh a home life, with too much emphasis placed on healthy eating and/or maintaining a certain weight, could easily backfire. Children raised in an overly restrictive environment may be more apt to overeat or otherwise self-indulge when they are living on their own. Consequently, I would have to say that a childhood during which one is educated about caring for ones body is much more likely to be successful than one where self-care is imposed and is seen as a form of discipline.