Discuss the factors that allowed Muhammad to rise and unite Arabia under the banner of Islam. Of these factors, which was most significant? Explain.
Prophet Muhammad’s journey to unite Arabia under the banner of Islam was not an easy task, because he met serious resistance from his own people. Although, after much struggle, he gained a considerable following, the opposition against him and Islam still lingered.
The Prophet was born to a Qurayshi family in Mecca. He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan but spent his early childhood with the Banu Sa’ad clan to satisfy traditional culture and customs. The Prophet's conflict with the Qurayshi tribe began after the tribe’s leaders felt threatened by Prophet Muhammad’s message and growing influence. The conflict grew with the growth of the Prophet's followers, and eventually, the situation became untenable, forcing the Prophet and his followers to relocate to Medina.
The Arab world was, at the time, divided into different tribes, with some harboring hostilities against each other. These fractured tribes and hostilities presented the Prophet with a significant opportunity to bring the region together through religion.
Additionally, Islam was based on values that were not emphasized at the time, and this was received well by those who took time to listen to its teachings. Affirmation of the teachings was demonstrated in Medina where Islam registered positive growth and progress. The tribes of Medina that had converted to Islam took the opportunity to end their hostilities by asking the Prophet to visit them and arbitrate their issues. Thus, Islam was able to contribute to peace and stability among the people.
The peace and stability that the Prophet managed to establish among the tribes in Medina helped grow his followers, and eventually, Muslims managed to deal with opposition. Thus, Islam, as taught by the Prophet, helped bring the peace and unity that was desired by most tribes in Arabia.