The Protestant Reformation was led by Martin Luther with his break from the Catholic Church, however, it was embraced by Henry VIII for purely personal reasons.
Politics and religion came to be intricately interwoven with national identity because of the association between the Protestant Reformation and England's Renaissance culture.
The English Renaissance was a "cultural and artistic movement," which began in 1485 under Henry VII. It represents a "rebirth" or renewed interest the arts.
The dominant art forms of the English Renaissance were literature and music.
By the time Elizabeth I came to the throne, she was well-prepared to lead England into a new era of prosperity. She was a brilliant monarch, shrewd like her father (Henry VIII), but more conservative. Whereas Henry's reign was like football or rugby, Elizabeth's reign was more like chess. She managed for a long time to avoid confrontations with Spain (the other major power in Europe—with its mighty Armada), increased the...
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