Marlowe's play is often framed as entering into a debate between medieval and Renaissance values, with Faustus representing the Renaissance.
The term "Renaissance man" refers to the individuals in the Renaissance who developed a wide breadth of knowledge across many fields. (Today people with such vast knowledge are still called Renaissance men or women.) These individuals wanted to understand art and science, religion and medicine—to be apprised of the whole spectrum of knowledge. Da Vinci is probably the exemplar of that tradition.
At the core, the Renaissance man wanted to break away from medieval Christian narrowness of vision and incorporate ideas from the classical world and direct observation into a broader, more enlightened Christian worldview.
Faustus is a typical Renaissance man in that he rejects putting restrictions on his quest for knowledge. He has a great desire to gain knowledge, even in forbidden areas. He wants to move beyond merely bowing to the traditions of the Church fathers. Knowledge is his route to power. He is also a Renaissance man, rather than an Enlightenment man, in that he has not lost faith in the supernatural. He does believe he has an immortal soul that he can sell the devil, and he believes in heaven and hell. It is simply that when he is offered his deal, the 24 years until the day of reckoning seems a long time off, and he thirsts, like a Renaissance man, to have knowledge now.
The play does not critique Faustus's desire for knowledge as much as it criticizes the ways he goes about trying to obtain it. Deals with the devil are shown to be a cheat. The Devil can offer very little beyond a few cheap tricks.