The difference between these two is that a status offense is one sort of juvenile delinquency.
Juvenile delinquency can be defined as any actions taken by a minor that are illegal. There are, of course, many sorts of juvenile delinquency. Status offenses are the least serious of all types of juvenile delinquency. These are actions that would not be illegal were it not for the age of the person involved. One example of this is drinking alcohol, which is only illegal for those under 21.
Other forms of delinquency can be much worse. Anything from petty theft to murder can be defined as juvenile delinquency. Status offenses are a type of juvenile delinquency, but they are much less serious than other types.
A status offense is an action deemed illegal because it has been carried out by a minor. The same behavior would not be regarded as an illegal act if carried out by an individual of legal age. Such behavior includes; running away from home, use of alcohol and other illegal drugs among other offenses.
Juvenile delinquency incorporates status offenses but differs in the scope of offending behavior. Offenses carried out by a minor in this case may cross over to criminal activity regardless of age. These are activities that provide for prosecution of both minors and those of legal age/adults. They may include; robbery, murder, and organized crime.
Status offenders are not charged or treated as adults. However, some juvenile delinquents may be charged and treated as adults based on the scale of the criminal behavior.