Discuss the biospheric importance of the following abiotic factors: water, soil, light, and temperature.
Climatic factors include light, temperature, water , rain, humidity and wind.
Light :Light directly or indirectly affects the life activities. For the photosynthetic activity of green plants light is essential. Growth, germination, flowering and other functions of plant are controlled by photoperiodism and different light rays. In animals, the light directly influences the sensation of sight, colour of skin, sensitivity to different colours.
Temperature:- Life can exist within certain limits of temperature. Some organisms can tolerate temperature from 20oC to 60oC.
Water and rain:- Life is impossible without water. Water content varies from 60% to 90% in living organisms. In organism, there is water regulation system to maintain definite water level in body. The maintenance of definite water level in the body is termed as osmoregulation.
Soil factor:- Soil factors are important for plants. Plants remain attached to soil. Plants obtain minerals, nutrients and water form soil. The upper layer of earth forms soil. Soil formed of mixed particles is suitable for organisms. There is addition of excretory products and dead bodies to the organic content of soil. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic matter. Water retention capacity of soil is increased by the organic matter. Soil is also the store house of mineral nutrition. Water and air content of soil are also important. Soil in which water and air is present is porous. Such water is absorbed by plants. Underground parts of plants and organisms in soil depend on air in soil.