The philosophical concept of aesthetics was nonexistent until the eighteenth century and, therefore, it did not exist in ancient times. Nevertheless, ancient Greek philosophers did consider and theorize about the elements of aesthetic properties.
Discussing Aristotle’s theories on art requires an understanding of what was known as mimesis in the ancient world, especially in Greece. In the time of Aristotle, the Greeks had not conceptualized or categorized what we would refer to as fine art. In Poetics, however, Aristotle appears to allude to a theory akin to mimesis, which might be considered an early definition of a concept relating to fine arts.
Mimesis is basically an imitation of the real world found in literature and art. We know Aristotle mentions the concept in relation to literary plots:
As therefore, in the other imitative arts, the imitation is one when the object imitated is one, so the plot, being an imitation of an action, must imitate one action and that a whole, the structural union of the parts being such that, if any one of them is displaced or removed, the whole will be disjointed and disturbed. For a thing whose presence or absence makes no visible difference, is not an organic part of the whole.”
Applying the mimesis concept to visual arts, Aristotle believes that truth results from perfectly replicating nature. Art, in his view, must represent beauty and beauty is found in reality. He believes that human beings derive pleasure from the beauty found in nature. In his view, this is how people learn. Thus, art must accurately represent reality so humans can learn and derive maximum pleasure from the process of learning. For example,
“Again, a beautiful object, whether it be a living organism or any whole composed of parts, must not only have an orderly arrangement of parts, but must also be of a certain magnitude; for beauty depends on magnitude and order. Hence a very small animal organism cannot be beautiful; for the view of it is confused, the object being seen in an almost imperceptible moment of time. Nor, again, can one of vast size be beautiful; for as the eye cannot take it all in at once, the unity and sense of the whole is lost for the spectator.”
What Aristotle is saying is that the simple copying of objects is insufficient to capture its beauty. It must be replicated in nature to constitute art, which means even a dead body can be beautiful if imitated accurately enough so that spectators can see the entire organism as a whole. Art is not just a moment of time in which people capture a glimpse of something.
Simplistically stated with respect to visual arts, it is not sufficient for a painter to imitate a physical object. To constitute art, the painter must reproduce the object in nature perfectly. The object must be re-created or re-presented. In that way, humans can enjoy art and learn from it.