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The pathological process is the process that occurs at the site weakened by a disease. For example, a pathological fracture describes a broken bone whose fracture is not produced by a mechanical cause but a disease, such as osteoporosis, that affects the density and quality of bones.
In osteoporosis, the risk of fractures increases as the porosity and brittleness of bones increase. The osteoporosis is a disease in which the balance between resorption and deposition of minerals in bones is affected. The aging process influences the remodelation process, leading to an unavoidable loss of trabecular bone. Although the loss of trabecular bone is compensated by the growth of cortical layer, thickening the structure of bone, the resilience of bone is affected by the loss of of density.
The osteoporosis disease is a silent disease and usually is discovered when a fracture occurs. Hence, it is crucial to determine the fixed risk factors that lead to this disease. Since hormones, especially estrogen hormone have a major influence in the activity of the two principle type of cells that are responsible with the bone remodelation, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, then, the female gender is more prone to osteoporosis, with aging. But there exists a series of other factors, that are not especially gender related, that can be included in the list of fixed factors, such that: hypogonadism in men, precursory fractures, glucocorticoid therapy, genetic inheritance.
Since these fixed factors cannot be changed, there exists a list of prevention measures that should be considered in childhood, adolescence and adulthood and that could be helpful and that could slow the process of degradation of bones.
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