Directional terms- Quadrupeds
1. In a dog, the brain is ___________ to the heart.
2. In a cat, the spinal cavity is located ___________.
3. In a dog, the tail is _______________ to the liver.
4. In a cat, the mammary glands are located ________________.
There are a variety of anatomical terms; I will define them on a question-by-question basis.
- In a dog, the brain is ________ to the heart.
- I'm not sure why a dog is being specified, because all vertebrates have the same body plan, with the brain being located more towards the head than the heart. The entire point of a unified series of anatomical terms is to circumvent descriptive issues that result from variations in stance and composition. Perhaps your teacher intended this as a trick question. The term for a location that is directed toward the front is anterior.
- In a cat, the spinal cavity is located ________.
- Again, the use of a cat is irrelevant; all vertebrates have a spinal column located in the same region. The spine is always found running along the central axis of the body, and located more toward the back than the belly. Things located along the midline are referred to as medial, and things located toward the back compared to the belly are dorsal.
- In a dog, the tail is __________ to the liver.
- This is a reversal of the directional arrangement described in the first question. Posterior refers to things that are located more toward the "rear" of the body, or farther from the head. The term caudal is also used.
- In a cat, the mammary glands are located __________.
- This is another reversal; the things located more toward the belly are ventral.