Differentiate between intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bond giving suitable examples.

Expert Answers

An illustration of the letter 'A' in a speech bubbles

Hydrogen bonding is a special case of bonding which involves hydrogen atom and a strong electronegative atom (such as oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen, etc.). Since hydrogen acquires a relatively strong partial positive charge when it bonds with an electronegative atom, such a bond represents a special case of dipole-dipole interactions. Another...

See
This Answer Now

Start your subscription to unlock this answer and thousands more. Enjoy eNotes ad-free and cancel anytime.

Start your Subscription

Hydrogen bonding is a special case of bonding which involves hydrogen atom and a strong electronegative atom (such as oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen, etc.). Since hydrogen acquires a relatively strong partial positive charge when it bonds with an electronegative atom, such a bond represents a special case of dipole-dipole interactions. Another way to think about the reason behind the dipole-dipole interactions is the strong pull on the covalently bonded electron pair that is exerted by the electronegative atom.

If the hydrogen bonding takes place between the atoms of the same molecule (that is hydrogen bonding within a molecule), such a hydrogen bonding is known as intramolecular hydrogen bonding. An example is the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of ethylene glycol.

If the hydrogen bonding takes place between two different molecules, it is known as intermolecular hydrogen bonding. An example is the hydrogen bonding between ammonia and water (between a hydrogen from water and nitrogen from ammonia).

Hope this helps. 

 

Approved by eNotes Editorial Team