Differentiate between job analysis and job design in human resource management.
Job analysis refers to a detailed examination of a given job with the purpose of understanding its features. Through it, the duties and responsibilities of the position it provides can be defined. It has two components: job description and job specification.
A job description contains information on the breadth of job activities and employee responsibilities within the organization. It also defines the internal position or level of the job. Through it, the employee is made aware of the activities that he or she should perform in order to meet the job requirements. As such, it focuses on the job and the kind of skills that the employee should have in order to perform the job successfully. Its contents include:
- Job title
- Location of the job
- Summary of the job
- Equipment and tools necessary in order to successfully perform activities
A job specification gives the job description in terms of human skills, qualifications, mental or physical properties. It focuses on the jobholder and attributes that he or she should have in order to perform the job effectively. For instance, a job may require applicants to have strong quantitative skills or the ability to communicate effectively with others. It also includes things such as the personal appearance of an applicant, age, sex or job-related experience.
Job design, on the other hand, refers to the process through which tasks are organized or arranged so as to achieve common organizational goals. Through it, job requirements are matched with the appropriate human skills. It focuses on the effects of job activities on employee attitude and morale. Therefore, it aims to enhance worker job satisfaction and reduce worker problems such as absenteeism and low morale. Some of the methods that can be used in job design processes include job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.
Job analysis is the activity of studying the nature of an existing job and analysing it to provide insights into associated issues like how difficult or easy the job is, what is the standard quantity of work output for the job, and what kind of skills and capabilities required for performing the job. The job analysis may be used for many different purposes such as recruitment, training need analysis, and job evaluation. A job analysis must include a job description of the job analysed. However, other parts of the document recording the result of job analysis may vary depending upon the nature of analysis carried out and the purpose for which it is to be used.
Job design on the other hand is concerned with deciding the nature of duties and responsibilities that constitute an independent job in the organization. It constitutes an important part of the detailed organization design.
Job analysis is a process by means of which a description is developed of present method and procedures of doing a job.It is to revealwhat is actually done and what should be done.It includes
>Material and tools used
>Reports and records made
>Relation of the job to other jobs
>Physical,menal and visual effort required
To take information about a particular job questionnaire,interview checklist,self recording may be used.
Job analysis has two parts
. JOB DESCRIPTION
The first one is related to the job whereas the second one describes the qualities a person should possess to meet the demand given in job description.
Job analysis is very useful for employee selection, promotions,appraisals andjob design.
JOB DESIGN is the process by which a job may be made interesting ,giving more freedom and autonomy to employeesand less tedious.
On the basis of job analysis many redesigning techniques are adopted to make a job meaningful and intersting and also flexible.It is actually related to organisational performance.Its main techniques are job enlargement,job enrichment,job rotation,autonomous work teams,work simplification.
In this way we can say that job analysis provides basic information about a job; this information is utilised in job designing .
Job designing is done to enhance organisational performance with a satisfied workforce, because a motivated workforce gives the expected results.
Many scientific methods and human relation approach is used to
design a job