Differentiate between job analysis and job design in human resource management.

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Job analysis refers to a detailed examination of a given job with the purpose of understanding its features. Through it, the duties and responsibilities of the position it provides can be defined. It has two components: job description and job specification.

A job description contains information on the breadth of job activities and employee responsibilities within the organization. It also defines the internal position or level of the job. Through it, the employee is made aware of the activities that he or she should perform in order to meet the job requirements. As such, it focuses on the job and the kind of skills that the employee should have in order to perform the job successfully. Its contents include:

  • Job title
  • Location of the job
  • Summary of the job
  • Responsibilities
  • Equipment and tools necessary in order to successfully perform activities

A job specification gives the job description in terms of human skills, qualifications, mental or physical properties. It focuses on the jobholder and attributes that he or she should have in order to perform the job effectively. For instance, a job may require applicants to have strong quantitative skills or the ability to communicate effectively with others. It also includes things such as the personal appearance of an applicant, age, sex or job-related experience.

Job design, on the other hand, refers to the process through which tasks are organized or arranged so as to achieve common organizational goals. Through it, job requirements are matched with the appropriate human skills. It focuses on the effects of job activities on employee attitude and morale. Therefore, it aims to enhance worker job satisfaction and reduce worker problems such as absenteeism and low morale. Some of the methods that can be used in job design processes include job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.

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