Did the U.S. conduct itself justly during the Cold War? Excluding the war in Vietnam.

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We made some mistakes during the Cold War, for sure. All in all, I beleive we might have been more unjust if we had actually attacked Russia or Cuba. Instead we played games for most of the war, developing secret weapons and shaking our sabers. At least fewer people died.
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What is "just"?  I would argue that neither side conducted themselves justly during the war.  We participated in proxy wars with millions of casualties, supported dictators who were brutal and repressive as long as they renounced communism and actively carried out assassination programs.  These are hard to defend from a standpoint of justice.

At the same time, we gave billions in foreign aid, defended South Korea and Western Europe successfully and avoided a nuclear war which would surely have destroyed mankind.  So in that sense, US actions in the Cold War were more just.

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I would say that the answer is both yes and no.

On the "yes" side, I think that opposing communism was clearly the just thing to do.  I do believe that communism, as practiced in places like the USSR and Cuba, is a system that is less just than our democratic and capitalistic system.  Not that our system has no flaws, but theirs had more.    Many of our specific actions were just as well.  Perhaps the best examples of this were the Marshall Plan and the Berlin Airlift.

On the "no" side, we clearly did some unjust things.  The overthrows of Mossadeq in Iran and Arbenz in Guatemala were not particularly just.  Neither was our support for the apartheid regime in South Africa.  We did many things like that where we took security over justice.

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