In Anne Frank: The Diary of A Young Girl, how were the Jews restricted in Amsterdam?
Anne Frank was given a diary by her father as a birthday present. She treasured it and began writing in it on June 12 1942, which was her 13th birthday. Her very last entry is on August 1 1944, four days before the people in the Secret Annex are arrested, having stayed there, undetected, for more than two years. Although initially Anne has no intention of sharing the contents of her diary, she is inspired to begin preparing some stories from it for publication after she hears a radio broadcast in 1944 informing listeners that a collection of stories from eye-witnesses which relate the suffering of the Dutch people under German occupation will hopefully be compiled. Anne and her family go into hiding but do, at least, have a good source of outward information and contact.
In Anne Frank:The Diary of A Young Girl, on Saturday, June 20 1942, Anne talks about her parents' concern for their family in Germany who are being persecuted due to the anti-Jewish laws. She goes on to mention that from May 1940, Holland began to impose regulations, most notably the wearing of the yellow star and restrictions on travel. Jews have to hand in their bicycles and not ride in cars - "even their own." They are also only allowed to shop between 3 pm and 5 pm and cannot be outdoors after 8 pm or before 6 am. All forms of entertainment are banned for Jews and they may only visit Jewish barber shops and beauty parlors. They could not visit their Christian friends in their homes. Anne takes this in stride, unaware of the real implications: "You couldn't do this and you couldn't do that, but life went on." On Wednesday June 24 1942, Anne comments that "The only mode of transportation left to us is the ferry." Jews have to walk everywhere although Anne concedes that it is not the fault of the Dutch.
Jewish children now have to attend Jews-only schools and Jews have had to sell their businesses. Even Anne's father has a Mr. Kleiman looking after his business now. On October 9 1942, Anne tells her diary, which she has named "Kitty," that many Jews are being rounded up and sent away to camps. She wonders how much worse it must be in Nazi Germany. On Thursday 19 November 1942, Anne comments that she has been told that people are being offered money to expose Jews, a tempting reward. Those Jews in hiding are forced to buy ration books on the "black market" but at least this allows Anne and her family to eat well at first, even if the food does become boring.
On Tuesday June 14 1953, Anne is saddened at the thought of the Germans ordering the handing in of radios, so the family will have to give up the "Phillips," but those who are not in hiding have to be seen to be obeying the rules and so the family will have to manage with a small radio for communication with the outside world.
More than a year later the persecutions are still taking place and so Anne's family is still in hiding and wondering what will happen next: "We're all alive, but we don't know why or what for." (July 6 1944) Anne will eventually die in a concentration camp, probably from Typhus.
Jews were forbidden to own radios and only allowed to live in Amsterdam. Jewish doctors, lawyers, and other Jewish professionals could only serve the Jewish community. All Jewish farms had to be sold. Jews were not allowed to go to public parks or pools. Jewish children were only allowed to attend Jewish schools.
In 1941, German Jews outside of Germany including the Dutch were stripped of citizenship.