Dhammapada is a Buddhist scripture sometimes ascribed to Lord Buddha himself. Explain the following text below which is found in the Dhammapada: Long is the night to him who is awake, long is a mile to him who is tired; long is life to the foolish who do not know the true law.
I had to edit the original question. I would strongly suggest resubmitting the other parts to it in additional questions. For this, I apologize.
The quote featured reflects much in way of the Lord Buddha's teachings about the path individuals should consider undertaking in seeking a better understanding about their nature of themselves, the world, and their place in it. Such teachings help the individual avoid the samsara which plages all consciousness in the world. The definition of "foolish" in the quote is to suggest that if individuals lack the knowledge or lack the consciousness of "the true law," one cannot be considered wise. It is this wisdom that enables the path through samsara, the life of the mundane, and into a world where desire and attachments wither away. Through this portal, true understanding about the nature of consciousness emerges, and the embrace of the "true law" is possible. When one stays awake at night, the night seems like an eternity in comparison to one who sleeps. If someone is tired, a mile seems an interminable distance. In much the same way, these images of toil and being lost amongst samsara are evoked through the idea of living a life without understanding and acceptance of the "true law," a setting in which desire and attachment to maya, or illusions, that dominate being in the world. The quote is seeking to bring out that the notion of true understanding lies in recognizing this maya within this samsara, and delving into the possibility of something more in terms of a condition of being where attachments to such elements are not as evident.