In "The Devil and Tom Walker," what is Irving making fun of about Puritan society and human beings in general?

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I would say the most striking criticisms Irving levels at human beings (and general human society) can be found in the characterization of Tom Walker, along with his wife, whose extreme parsimony and pettiness was such that they made themselves miserable. This extreme, self-defeating miserliness is reflected in the condition in which the two live. They have taken miserliness to the highest point of absurdity, to such a degree that they have become impoverished for it. Consider, in the beginning of the story, the description of the house they live in: "they lived in a forlorn-looking house that stood alone, and had an air of starvation." Later, after Tom sells his soul to the devil, this same absurdity would continue to manifest, as now he would reside in a vast mansion (largely incomplete) and riding around in a carriage, pulled by starved horses. There's a tension here, between the ostentatious desire for status and prestige, continually undermined and made pointless by his own stinginess.

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In "The Devil and Tom Walker," Washington Irving centers the story on Tom Walker, a greedy man who is willing to do just about anything to make more money. This all-consuming desire for wealth eventually leads Tom to make a deal with the Devil. With this deal, Tom sells his soul to the Devil so he can be materially wealthy while he is alive. 

As he gets older and closer to death, Tom begins to worry about the deal he made with the Devil so many years ago. He convinces himself that if he turns to religion now, he may not actually have to spend the afterlife with the Devil. Tom becomes a fervent church-goer and prays loudly. He is very showy about his faith, but does not actually modify his other behaviors to match his purported religious beliefs. Irving wrote this aspect of the story largely to critique Puritans, who he believed were vocal about their religious practices but did not actually align their actions with the beliefs they spoke about loudly and criticized others for not following.

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