Describe what Taxonomy is and how it reflects phylogeny. Be sure to explain both terms carefully.

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Taxonomy is the naming of organisms into categories based on shared characteristics. Carolus Linneaus devised an early taxonomic system using a two-name(binomial nomenclature) system of naming organisms. By categorizing living things into taxa, they can be more easily identified and studied. Today, we use Kingdom,(the broadest category)then-- Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species, with Genus and Species comprising precisely which organism is being referred to. The term phylogeny refers to studying the evolutionary relationships among living things based on DNA evidence, morphological evidence, fossil record, comparative cytology and others to show how closely living things are related. It was once assumed that orangatans and chimps were more closely related to one another than to humans. After DNA analysis, it is shown the chimps and humans are actually more closely related. Phylogenetics is a branch of science that illuminates these relationships.

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