Describe the types of styles of European art and architecture during the Middle Ages.

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The style of architecture mostly closely associated with the Middle Ages is the Gothic. Gothic architecture was developed in France in the twelfth century and spread across most of Europe. It is characterized by pointed arches, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaulting. Ribbed vaulting was an innovation that allowed a building to support windows higher up. Windows in the upper or clerestory level of a building are particularly associated with Gothic cathedrals. Flying buttresses support a building from its outside, so they can be seen extending out from the walls of a cathedral or other large building. Gothic architecture is also characterized by decorative features such as gargoyles.

A form of medieval architecture that predates the Gothic is the Romanesque. If pointed arches are the chief distinguishing feature of the Gothic, rounded arches characterize the Romanesque. Romanesque architecture has thick walls, solid rounded towers, and other rounded surfaces. It evolved between the sixth and eleventh centuries from the architecture of the Roman Empire. 

Art in the Middle Ages was primarily devoted to Christian subjects and evolved over the course of time from stiff, flat, and static to more realistic. It also developed a greater sense of perspective or depth.