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Emile Durkheim identified three pathological forms of adaptation to division of labor. The first, he described as anomie, by which he meant a lack of rules and regulations governing social life. This tended to occur when rapid social change took place. Durkheim, in common with many other sociologists, believed that rules, laws and other aspects of the superstructure of capitalist society developed alongside capitalism itself. Anomie happened when, due to technology or some other reason, superstructural change lagged behind base changes. The second condition was "enforced division of labor." This happened when there was a disconnect between the social structure (i.e. class structure, defined by division of labor) and the prevailing notions of economic justice. In this case, the rules that had developed no longer corresponded with lived realities, and they could only be maintained by force. Like Marx, Durkheim believed that this disconnect would lead to revolutions that would alter the social structure. Unlike Marx, Durkheim believed that anomie was the more prevalent condition as a result of industrialization. Finally, there was a third form, which one historian has described as "lack of internal organizational coordination."
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