The communication process in public speaking is confirmed when the message is conveyed by the sender and accepted or understood by the receiver. Simply stated, communication is the exchange of information between two parties. In between those two aspects, there are factors that enter into the process.
First, the communicator sends his message. The initiation of the process begins with a clear statement which includes the encoding of the message through both verbal and nonverbal means.
Secondly, the receiver of the communication must decode the message. His interpretation of the missive will determine if actual communication has been completed.
Certain external factors enter into the satisfactory processing. For example, in speech communication the channel through which the message is sent must be either a visual or oral process.
The setting or context of the process further determines the effective decoding of the message. The place and time involved in the communication should also be evaluated.
Interference may also play a part in the receiving of the message. Noise, language barriers, improper encoding--all can deter complete reception of the message.
To determine the progression of communication, feedback is necessary. An exchange between the sender and the receiver in some form will ascertain the success of the process.
A successful communicator must understand these basic aspects of the communication process to ensure favorable results. Thus, he can blossom into an effective speaker.
Communication is the process by which people create and send symbols that are received, interpreted, and responded to by other people. A process is a series of stages or steps during which something is transformed. People includes the sender/speaker/source and the receiver/listener/audience. The speaker initiates the message…and the listeners are those for whom the message was intended. Ideas, opinions, information, etc. are encoded; they are transformed into verbal and nonverbal symbols. Symbols are the verbal and nonverbal signs used to represent thoughts, things, and actions.
The combination of symbols forms the message. Messages are sent through verbal and nonverbal channels, such as physical senses or media. Frame of reference affects a person’s interpretation of the message. Frame of reference includes the listener’s experiences, knowledge, goals, beliefs, feelings, values, attitudes, etc.
Noise or interference (both internal and external) may disrupt transmission of the message. Internal interference could be sleepiness, hunger pains, pre-occupations. External interference could be the sound of a snowplow outside the window. Feedback (both verbal and nonverbal) is the receivers’ response to the message, and includes facial expressions, questions, and comments.
Communication is symbolic and personal: although we create shared reality, meaning is never the same for two people within that shared reality. We each have different fields of experience and use different encoding and decoding processes. The sender and the receiver are affected by the situation and context: time, social environment, and physical setting.
Communication is transactional. The linear (or historical way of looking at communication) model is simple: the source sends a message to the receiver. If we add feedback, however, the receiver becomes the sender and the sender becomes the receiver. The model changes from linear to transactional.
The model starts with a speaker and some listeners. The message travels along a channel, as does feedback from the audience. Interference can impede the communication process, and the situation (the time and the place, among others) can shape the message. Communication is not static—and it is not the mere transmission of messages.
Communication is both verbal and nonverbal, intentional and unintended.
Three levels of communication are contained in messages. At the content level is the explicit subject and content of the message. At the relationship level is the way the speaker views the status relationship with the other participants (dominant, equal, or subservient). This is often revealed in tone of voice or word choice. At the affective level are the emotions, or how the speaker feels about the message, the participants, and the situation.
There are 10 general steps in the Speechmaking Process: It’s one step at a time.
1. Select a topic
2. Narrow the topic
3. Identify your goal or residual message
4. Audience analysis
5. Finalize your residual message
6. Develop and support your main points
7. Structure main points
8. Plan introduction and conclusion
No one starts from scratch—whenever we communicate with a goal in mind, we always organize our thoughts, adapt the message to the audience, and use feedback.