People reacted to this in many ways. Let us look at two of them.
One of the more obvious ways in which people reacted to industrialization was by forming labor unions. These unions were meant to try to improve working conditions and pay for the massive working class that had been created by the process of industrialization. These unions often did not succeed in gaining what they wanted, but they did continue to arise during the Industrial Revolution.
A second reaction was the Progressive movement. This movement tried to work through government (rather than through unions) to mitigate the impacts of industrialization. It tried to reduce the power of the giant industrial firms. It also tried to create legislation to ensure things like workplace safety.
These two groups acted in somewhat different ways to try to combat the effects of the Industrial Revolution.