During the colonial era in North America, there were a number of “colonial wars” in which the colonists from various countries fought against one another. In North America, this generally meant that the British colonists in what is now the US fought French colonists from what is now Canada. These wars were all connected to conflicts in Europe. Queen Anne’s war is one such war.
Queen Anne’s War took place in the colonies from 1702 to 1713. It started one year earlier in Europe and ended one year later. In European history, this war is called the War of the Spanish Succession. This gives us an idea of why it started.
The war was fought over who would become the next king of Spain. Chalres II had died and left the trone to King Philip V, who was the grandson of King Louis XIV of France. This made countries like England, Holland, and Austria very worried. They were worried that France and Spain would be united under one royal dynasty. Because of this worry, they went to war. The war ended with Philip V ruling Spain, but with a treaty that affirmed that the thrones of Spain and France would not be united.
In short then, this was a European war that spilled over to the European colonies in North America.