Let's start by looking at ionic versus covalent bonds. Chemicals with ionic bonds tend to be solids when dry at room temperature and pressure. They are often crystalline in nature due to the internal arrangement of their ions and usually have very high melting points. They also tend to dissolve easily in water and other polar solvents.
Chemicals with covalent bonds covers a huge number of chemicals. But the three major types of covalent bonds are single, double, and triple bonds. In general, the smaller the chemical, the less dense it is and this determines its physical state. Very small chemicals like O2 and CO2 are gasses, slightly larger ones like C5H10 are liquids, and larger chemicals are solids. Chemicals with multiple bonds tend to be chemically reactive because of the double or triple bond. Finally, chemicals with carbon carbon double and triple bonds tend more likely to be solids than chemicals with all single bonds. These are all generalizations, of course, but they tend to hold true.