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After the death of Alexander the Great, the areas he had conquered split up into three successor empires, one composed of Greece and Macedonia, an Egyptian one ruled by the Ptolemies, and a Seleucid Empire covering much of the Near and Middle East including Palestine. These areas adapted Greek as an administrative language and developed many typically Greek institutions (including such Hellenic elements as gymnasia and theatres within Greek poleis). When the Romans conquered the successors to Alexander, they left in place many Hellenized institutions and constituted Palestine and other successor areas as provinces, administered by a governor with the aid of local elites and the Roman army. When Jesus died, Palestine was part of a Roman province.
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