Describe the parts of a neuron and the functions of each.

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ncchemist eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Neurons are cells that make up the nervous system.  They are designed to carry electrochemical signals from one part of the body to another.  There are three major parts to the neuron: the soma, dendrites, and axon.  The soma is the main, central part of the neuron that contains the nucleus of the cell.  The dendrites are extensions that emanate from the soma and branch out into very fine, tiny extensions to communicate with other neurons.  The axon is a single extension from the soma that can travel for many micrometers and branch numerous times.  The axon ends in the axon terminal that contains extensions that communicate with other neurons.  In this way, neurons can come together to form large networks to send signals across the body.