Describe the major differences between Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy.
Following the Holy Fathers, Orthodoxy uses science and philosophy to defend and explain its Faith. Unlike Roman Catholicism, which does not build on the results of philosophy and science. The Church does not seek to reconcile faith and reason. The Catholic church also categorizes the authority of the clergy, while The Orthodox Church teaches that all bishops are equal. To be sure, there are different ranks of bishops (patriarch, archbishop, metropolitan, bishop); nevertheless, a bishop is a bishop.
Orthodoxy signifies the right belief or purity of faith. Right belief rests mainly on a person's knowledge and convictions but is still in accordance with the doctrines and teachings of the Church. Faith is required for man's salvation but also requires abiding by the laws and precepts set forward by the Church. People who deviate from the orthodox teachings of the Church profess a doctrine that is considered to be false and are usually know as heretics. There are many break-offs from the original orthodox religion of Catholicism. Orthodoxy is the triumph and victory of true Christian teachings over all the other perversions and misinterpretations.
Roman Catholicism is one of the oldest religious institutions in the world. They claim their role and purpose is to spread forth the gospel of Jesus Christ while administering sacraments and exercising charity. It teaches that the Church was founded by Jesus Christ which is similar to orthodoxy but also believes that the bishops and successors are of his ancient apostles and that the pope is the successor St. Peter. They also claim that they have the power to interpret doctrines of Christ through guidance of the Holy Ghost.