The Renaissance was a "rebirth" of Greek and Roman culture. This rediscovery of antiquity meant moving away from medieval stylized models of Gothic architecture and art toward the more naturalistic styles of antiquity, a trend that increased from the early to the high Renaissance. In both sculpture and art, humans began to be portrayed more naturally, in a wider variety of poses. Humans tended to be individualized rather than stylized. As well as religious themes, painting and sculpture increasingly addressed secular themes, and the techniques of individual portraiture became highly developed. As part of the movement toward naturalism, painting started to use perspective and foreshortening and techniques of gradual shading such as sfumato. Painters and sculptors both became interested in the nude human body and accurate portrayal of musculoskeletal structures.
In architecture, builders emphasized symmetry and harmony. Most dramatically, they eschewed the ribbed vaults and pointed arches of the Gothic and increasingly used domes and rounded arches. Flat and coffered ceilings became more common. Columns imitated Greek orders, and ornament was more precise, regular, and symmetrical than earlier Gothic styles.