Progress in agriculture and industry resulted into unlimited exploitation of every bit of natural resource. Such activities of man had adverse effect on all forms of living organisms in the biosphere.
Air pollution: The toxic vehicular exhausts are a source of considerable air pollution. The ever increasing vehicular traffic density posed continued threat to the ambient air quality. There are a number of industries which are source of air pollution. Petroleum refineries are the major source of gaseous pollutants.
Water pollution: Most of our water bodies as ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, sea, oceans have become polluted due to industrial growth, urbanisation and other man-made problems. The chief sources of water pollution are (1) sewage and other waste, (2) industrial effluents, (3) agricultural discharges and (4) industrial wastes fro chemical industries.
Noise pollution: These days there has been rapid industrial growth. Moreover, there has been population explosion, due to which there is heavy traffic, urban crowd and electric equipment. All these have added to the noise nuisance in environment.