Describe how Muhammad founded a new religious-political community in Islam.

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Muhammad was quite conscious of the new religious and political community he founded in Islam.  To a great extent, the surrounding conditions and the setting out of which he articulated the tenets of Islam were significant.  In Pre- Islamic Arabia, Muhammad recognized the challenges present.  He understood that the Arabs of the region were not unified.  Many of the tribes were nomadic, lacking a centralized focus.  Those that were settled focused on generating economic profit in a region where agriculture was difficult.  Given the lack of centrality, different tribes waged battle against others.  Blood feuds and vendettas were part of the world that Muhammad saw as the formation of a religious- political community was seen as fundamentally impossible during the time.  Nomadic tribes waging war for conquest of another was not unusual.  For Muhammad, the need to develop a new religious and political community and culture emerged from these elements.  A lack of spiritual identity was enveloping the region, as materialism and conquest for goods became dominant.  Additionally, there was little in way of centralized focus.  Countering tribalism in the form of a shared collective notion of community became part of the Muhammad's motivation.

With this in mind, it becomes clear as to why Muhammad's message was steeped in the political reality.  Muhammad's community was geared towards spiritual transcendence as well as a reality that was steeped in fragmented contingency.  The monotheism of his...

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