In the Central Nervous System, Neurons are the fundamental information processing structures. A neuron ( a brain cell) receives information (inputs) from other neurons. It subsequently processes said information and sends it out (output) to other neurons in the brain.
Neurons transmit thoughts. The flow of information from one neuron to another in the brain is by way of Synapses. These synapses are the "connections" between neurons. Therefore, all of the information that comes into, goes out of, and is within the Central Nervous System (CNS), undergoes processing by neurons.
Neurons process all that information that we take in by way of the five senses. With this information we think and act. Concerning the cognitive information we take in, we then are able to plan, think, analyze, reason, distill, remember and more. This leads to us making decisions, formulating opinions, as well as taking courses of action.
Neurons can communicate quickly with organs and other neurons. They can do this very fast through sending electrical and chemical signals. They convert chemical signals into electrical signals.
There exist three types of neurons. These are Motor Neurons, Sensory Neurons, and Interneurons. Motor Neurons, true to their name, express motor information. Sensory Neurons, as their name implies, express sensory information. Interneurons express information between diverse kinds of neurons.