Describe how food production affects technological, economic, political, and social development in Guns, Germs, and Steel.
Food production affects these sorts of development in that it makes all of them possible. The sooner there is food production, the sooner the society can start to develop in the ways that are mentioned.
When food production begins, the population density of the society increases. This is because societies that produce foods can get more of it than societies that must get food through hunting and gathering. When societies have more food, they can support larger populations. When they have larger populations, they can have people who do all sorts of non-food related activities. These people can cause the various sorts of development that you mention here.
There can be people who are able to create technology because they do not have to obtain food for themselves. There are people who can create art. There are people who can be political leaders. All of these things are possible because the people do not need to get their own food. In this way, food production leads to greater population density which, in turn, leads to development of the sorts that you mention in this question.