Describe and give an example for each: 1) Coordinate covalent bond 2) Dipole–dipole attraction 3) hydrogen bonding 4) molecule–ion attraction 5) London Dispersion forces
1). Coordinate covalent bond: This is a type of covalent bond in which two atoms are sharing a pair of electrons, but both the electrons are coming from the same atom. This is as opposed to a simple covalent bond, in which each atom contributes an electron to the pair.
An example of this kind of bonding is the reaction between ammonia and hydrogen chloride, in which the fourth hydrogen of the ammonium ion attaches through a coordinate covalent bond and the hydrogen leaves behind its electron on the chlorine, forming a negative chloride ion.
2). Dipole-dipole interactions: These type of interactions occur due to the attraction between the partial positive charge of one molecule and the partial negative charge of a different molecule, resulting in an arrangement based upon increased attraction and reduced potential energy.
An example of this is hydrogen chloride (HCl); the partial positive of one molecule of HCL will attract the partial negative of another HCl, creating attraction rather than a full bond.
3). Hydrogren bonding: Hydrogen bonds are a type of dipole force in which the hydrogen bond serve as the force of attraction between the hydrogen connected an electronegative atom and the electronegative atom of another molecule.
Water is an example of this type of bond!
4). Molecule-ion attraction: These are the attractive forces between the positive end of a polar molecule and the negative ion of an ionic compound, or the negative end of a polar molecule and the the positive ion of an ionic compound.
An example of this is the dissolution of salt in water.
5). London Dispersion forces: These are weak intermolecular forces which occur when electrons in two adjacent atoms create temporary dipoles via those atoms. This is the reason for the condensation of gases into liquids or the freezing of liquids into solids.
An example of this would be Cl2 and Br2 cooling into solids.