What was the geography of the middle colonies?
When discussing regions, remember the boundaries are not fixed and there is some overlap with the New England and Southern colonial regions. On a current map, the Middle Colonies are New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey. Keep in mind states did not exist, so these are the current political boundaries the Middle Colonies occupied during colonial times.
The climate of the area is temperate, with warm summers and cold winters. Temperate climates are not subject to wide extremes in weather and as a result are capable of significant agricultural production in the region. During colonial times, the Middle Colonies were known as the "breadbasket" for the colonies, as the climate was favorable to grow wheat, barley, oats, and rye.
The topography of the region consists of a balance of mountains, rolling hills, and coastal plains. The Middle Colonies were strategically located on deepwater ports of access. Numerous protected coves and bays were providing open access to the Atlantic Ocean. The coastal areas became known for the fishing industry, and the ample forests supplied lumber to a dynamic shipbuilding industry.
In general, the geography favored an economy based on grain, cattle, and sheep. The proximity to the Atlantic Ocean was favorable to the fishing, shipbuilding, and port-related industries. Of the three regions, the geography of the Middle Colonies was the most desirable for growth and settlement.