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India's governmental makeup is very similar to the United States in that it has both Horizontal and Vertical structures. Horizontal government refers to what in the United States we call Separation of Powers. It basically separates the government into three separate structures with checks and balances to stop corruption and tyranny from forming. The Horizontal structure is a Representative Democracy, thus the people vote for representatives to make laws for them. Vertical government refers to Federalism. It is basically a balance of power between the central governments and the provincial governments. The federal government in India is referred to as the Union Government or the Central Government. (The latter being more prevalent.) Unlike the United States, India has two vertical distributions below their Central Government. The First is the State Government and the second is the Panchayat (Local/Municipal).
This horizontal and vertical structures are influenced by coalitions. (Also a form of power sharing.) Like the United States, India has dominant political parties called coalitions. The largest coalition becomes the ruling party. This is dissimilar to the United States (in general), however is seen in England. The United States uses this form of Power Sharing in the House and the Senate. In India it is a broader national concept. Coalitions that are not the dominant or ruling party are referred to as the opposition. The opposition acts as a governmental referee and ensures that the people's wishes are upheld.
India also has power sharing within the castes and the social groups. These castes and social groups are designed to give voice to groups that would feel alienated. Basically it provides a governmental cubbyhole for minorities to have a voice in society.
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