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Muslim civilization began forming in the 7th century when the prophet Muhammad first recited the Quran and began a war of conquest which eventually spread Islam across the Arab peninsula. Under the Rashidan and Umayyad caliphates it grew larger and more prosperous, eventually reaching into Europe and across Asia.
In addition to territorial contests and occasional armed conflict, Muslim civilization has affected Europe in a number of positive ways thanks to inevitable cultural exchanges that occurred during and after centuries of conflicts. Principals of art, architecture and craft all made their way into Europe and even into the New World thanks to Spanish colonization. In mathematics, decimal point notation, surgical tools, astronomy, navigation, physiology, irrigation, botany, industrialization, refining, food production and paper-making were all technologies that first arrived in Europe thanks to Muslim traders and missionaries. Inventions as complex as petroleum refining to something as simple as perfume and soap making arrived along the silk road or were brought back following the end of the Crusades.
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