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Describe the effect of the spread of humanism in Northern Europe during the Renaissance.  

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Humanism placed more emphasis on the works of humans, rather than the works of God. Northern Europeans embraced humanism with the aid of trade with the Italian city-states during the Renaissance. Johannes Gutenberg was quite influential in humanistic thought, as his printing press put more books into the hands of the masses. While the Bible was the most popular book printed, several other books went into circulation, such as novels, plays, and self-help books. The printing press also popularized the languages being spoken in the German states, France, and England. People began to see themselves as part of a "nation" rather than part of Christendom. While kings would still maintain that they had a right to rule thanks to God, leaders now sought to consolidate power in themselves rather than asking the Pope for permission.

Humanism also appeared in...

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