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The PACE 84 was an act passed in the UK Parliament which is the American equivalent of the Search and Seizure rights as they appear in the American Bill of Rights.
Prior to the Act, there was no specific protocol for searches and arrests made on people in the UK. Anything that was considered, as the Act itself says, "arrestable" would indeed become so. Comparatively, in America we have to read Miranda rights, obtain warrants, get judge orders from court, and go through a specific procedure prior to enter a home, arrest a person, and thinks of that kind.
The Pace 84 basically establishes guidelines, or what they call "benchmarks", that must be followed prior to conducting a search and seizure, and even for making an arrest upon suspicion. It even offers procedures for interviews and interrogations.
An IT student working in a high school has to be specifically careful not to break any confidentiality codes, especially when prompted by a school administrator to crack into student accounts to obtain information about possible undisciplined activity. No matter how pressing for information a teacher, parent, or administrator is, the IT person most maintain the same rules of action when accessing information. A specific school protocol must be in place and signed by personnel, students, and parents, understanding the limits to their computer usage, and the extent to which the information entered will be protected by the law.
In the United States a judge is able to accuse and find someone guilty of numerous offenses done by false data collection, intrusion in people's personal files, and by obtaining information for purposes not regulated. Among the consequences, a person doing things of this sort could be expelled from a learning institution, from the workforce, licenses can be revoked, jail time could be pending, or the accusation of felony in the case of identity theft, or invasion of privacy. That can also include civil suits made from person to person on behalf of their rights to privacy.
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