Marbury v. Madison did not impact federalism very much at all. It was a case about what powers the judiciary would have. In that case, the Supreme Court took the power of judicial review for itself.
The Constitution says nothing about whether the courts have the right to declare laws passed by Congress to be unconstitutional. It was not clear whether the Court would be able to do this or whether anything the Congress did was, by definition, legal.
In this case, the Supreme Court decided that they, indeed, were the ones who had the right to say what was and was not Constitutional.
If you are looking for a case that had to do with federalism, perhaps you are thinking of McCulloch v. Maryland.