Describe "Candida" by George Bernard Shaw as a problem play..
Candida by George Bernard Shaw is a problem play in the sense that it either challenges a posture or unveils an issue that is latent but persistent in society. In this case, the issue is the presentation of the role of women in a way that greatly differs from the rigid expectations bestowed upon them by society. In Shaw's generation, around 1890, women had to follow strict rules of prudence and decorum that would show the world that they were "virtuous."
Yet, the last decade of the 19th century, the start of the Progressive Era for women, brought with it deep social changes that began to manifest in the psyche of the people. Two questions posed by social reformers were as follows: In a changing society, will the strict roles imposed upon women also get a chance to change and expand into something better? Will women be forever relegated to the same roles in a society that is becoming more modern and seems to invite them to join in and become a part of the change?
Several works of literature from this time were already presenting female characters with personality traits that removed them almost completely from the idea of the Victorian "angel of the household." Take, for example, Oscar Wilde's The Importance of Being Earnest, which ranked higher than any other play in 1895, and included the peppery and feisty characters of Cecily and Gwendolen: two women who challenged the ideas of marriage, courtship, and even loyalty to their men.
To return to Shaw, the play Candida concerned itself with a similar gender-based topic (although it was produced before Wilde's play, in 1890). It deals with a woman, Candida, who cannot be placed in the social mold in which women were intended to be placed.
- Candida was not portrayed as a typical "damsel in distress."
- She is not portrayed as helpless or clueless or in need of a man's guidance.
- In her marriage, she was obviously the stronger character when compared to her husband.
- She takes on a lover and still lets him go, choosing her husband in the end, "the weaker of the two men."
- There is no intense romance that makes Candida lose her mind or lose her sense of self, as we see in Madame Bovary and Anna Karenina, for example. Conversely, Candida is more coolheaded than her own husband, who even seems overwhelmed by her strong personality—even though she owes most of her personality to him and his guidance.
These factors really make Candida clash with the idea of "what women should be." The reason why Shaw is bringing this up is because he wants to converse with the social progressives of his time, and he wants to present the argument that women are much more than just docile, marriageable creatures; they feel, want, need, suffer, desire, and love just like any other human being and deserve to be acknowledged for it.
A problem play focuses on a current social problem in a realistic manner. In Candida, written in the 1890s, Shaw critiques Victorian stereotypes about women, love, and marriage. Women's issues were coming to the forefront in that period, as women became increasingly dissatisfied with their limited role in society, including lack of the right to vote, and increasingly felt restricted by their expected subordination to men and their expected embrace of the role of "angel of the home."
In Candida, Shaw creates a female protagonist who challenges stereotypical ideas about women. Candida is a strong woman who is not so much a loving, nurturing "support" for her clergy husband as an active agent in his success. Another man, Marchbanks, falls in love with her, deciding she is a divine angel that he can worship. Morell, her husband, thinks she needs his guidance and strong, male protection. Candida needs neither worship, nor protection, even though these are the Victorian ideals of what a woman should expect from a man. She is powerful in her own right, and in a rupture with Victorian conventions about love and gender, chooses not the stronger man, but the weaker, Morell, to be her partner.
In sum, this is a problem play because Shaw shows that conventional Victorian ideas about women are wrong and should be challenged.
A problem play is a play in the tradition of realism dealing with a problem--social, moral, political, philosophical and so on. The Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen pioneered this kind of drama in Europe, and Bernard Shaw in England followed suit.
'Candida' is a typical Shavian problem play that handles the problem of love and marriage, and of man-woman relationship. The arrival of the young poet, Eugene Marchbanks, at the house of the socialist clergyman, James Mavor Morell, and his long-married wife, Candida, catapults their happy married life, as the middle-aged Candida discovers herself strangely caught in between her dependent husband and her independent lover. Morell feels increasingly scared of being dispossessed of his wife's loving support without which he just cannot survive as a preacher and a social reformist. He gets apprehensive of a 'calf-love' between his wife and the young poet. Marchbanks, on the other hand, tells Candida of love-romance-imagination beyond the limits of domesticity and expediency. The triangular love-situation, an age-old motif in literature, however reaches its culmination in the 'auction scene' where Candida puts herself to auction, and chooses 'the weaker of the two', i.e. her husband Morell. Marchbanks leaves to dissolve into the darkness of the night, carrying the 'mystery' in his poet's heart.
Shaw chooses an apparently stereotypical love-triangle, in which a married woman falls in an extra-marital affair. But he charateristically turns the table as the woman is neither driven out by her husband, nor does she elope with her unlawful lover. Candida stays back with Morell because he is weaker than Marchbanks, and Morell desperately needs her. Morell is no longer the strong and self-important husband. It is rather Candida who is in full command of the emotional as well as social-economic situation.