Bacon's rebellion resulted from the perceived indifference of the town leaders of the Jamestown settlement to deal with Indian problems in areas some distance from the settlement. Former indentured servants were entitled to fifty acres of land after their indenture was completed; however their lands were often on the outskirts of the settlement where Indians were more prevalent. Nathaniel Bacon, who had only been in the colony for two years, organized his own militia which attacked a number of Indian settlements, some of whom had been friendly to the settlers. When the Jamestown Assembly refused to help, Bacon led the militia against Jamestown itself. Bacon claimed his grievances were because of actions of the Assembly, namely:
For having protected, favored, and emboldened the Indians against his Majesty’s loyal subjects, never contriving, requiring, or appointing any due or proper means of satisfaction for their many invasions, robberies, and murders committed upon us.
For having, when the army of English was just upon the track of those Indians, who now in all places burn, spoil, murder and when we might with ease have destroyed them who then were in open hostility, for then having expressly countermanded and sent back our army by passing his word for the peaceable demeanor of the said Indians, who immediately prosecuted their evil intentions, committing horrid murders and robberies in all places, being protected by the said engagement and word past of him the said Sir William Berkeley, having ruined and laid desolate a great part of his Majesty’s country, and have now drawn themselves into such obscure and remote places and are by their success so emboldened and confirmed by their confederacy so strengthened that the cries of blood are in all places, and the terror and consternation of the people so great, are now become not only difficult but a very formidable enemy who might at first with ease have been destroyed.
The rebellion failed because Bacon himself died from "bloody flux" shortly after it commenced.
The primary result of Bacon's Rebellion, other than its significance as the first rebellion against authority in British America, is that planters lost confidence in Indentured Servants as a source of labor and increasingly turned to the use of African slaves.