Describe the armed uprisings against western imperialism in Africa and China during late 19th and early 20th centuries. How similar were these movements to other alternative visions of the new world order?

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Faith in the civilizing mission in Africa declined over time as resistance to colonial establishments continued and military force was needed to put down violent uprisings. Rarely did these conflicts feature brave Zulu warriors charging pith-helmeted British regulars. African loyalties broke along local and religious lines, so most fighting was between groups of blacks and whites against other groups of blacks and whites. A partial exception was Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia's army and their defeat of a combined Italian and Eritrean army in 1896.

Western powers had received treaty ports and extraterritorial status since the defeat of China in the Opium Wars but after Japan's victory over China in 1895 outside nations gained even greater influence. Chinese humiliation and resentment expressed itself through a covert nativist martial arts group that began attacking foreigners, Chinese Christians, and complicit Chinese officials. In 1900 there were 140,000 of these nativist rebels surrounding the international community in Bejing. The foreigners had to call in outside troops for relief. The Chinese ended up having to pay a large indemnity for violation of treaties and had to allow foreign troops in Beijing to protect the international community.

Africans were divided by different regional, tribal, and religious affiliations and pan African movements were more a phenomenon of twentieth-century nationalism and racial-consciousness than the nineteenth century. revolts against European colonization. In China, however, a national consciousness already existed from the memory of the Chinese Empire and the Confusionism that had long unified their cultural and religious outlook. The resistance movements were similar in desiring a return to greater autonomy or self-rule without the direct imposition of outside forces.

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