Figurative language employs a wide range of literary devices, beyond the five types you referred to in your question. When you distill figurative language to the basics, you're essentially using a word or phrase in a way that expands on its literal meaning, in order to establish deeper significance. While...
Figurative language employs a wide range of literary devices, beyond the five types you referred to in your question. When you distill figurative language to the basics, you're essentially using a word or phrase in a way that expands on its literal meaning, in order to establish deeper significance. While eNotes educators are not responsible for completing students' assignments for them, I will provide an example to aid your own reflection.
Personification is established by attributing human characteristics something nonhuman or conveying an abstract quality in human form. Animal Farm in itself embodies the former: the animals in the novella are given the ability to think and speak for themselves so that their interactions and the plot can allude to elements of human nature and a particular political society. The story in itself is a political allegory representing first the lead up to the Russian Revolution, then progressing into the Stalinist era of the Soviet Union (more on this later on). The entire novella is is built upon personification, a particularly salient quote being this:
As for the pigs, they could already read and write perfectly.
This quote occurs in chapter 3, after Napoleon and Snowball lead the rebellion of the animals against Mr. Jones, the owner of Manor Farm. The animals are set to the task of learning to read and write, and the pigs quickly establish themselves as intellectually superior. The cleverness of the pigs leads to their establishment of an animal code of ethics, which is amended throughout the story to benefit the pigs. In this way, the other farm animals are subject to a similarly oppressive way of life compared to when they were led by Mr. Jones, the only difference being a change in rulership (in other words, the transfer of power from the Russian monarchy to Stalin, with his autocratic rule, imposed comparable hardships and lack of freedom on the Russian people).
A story is classified as a political allegory when the plot conveyed on the surface has a deeper political meaning. Animal Farm as a whole is a political allegory, and contained within this ongoing device is another type of figurative language. The following quote represents a plot detail related to a specific point in Russian political history:
Jones was hurled into a pile of dung and his gun flew out of his hands... Several men dropped their sticks and tried to run. Panic overtook them, and the next moment all the animals together were chasing them round and round the yard. They were gored, kicked, bitten, trampled on. There was not an animal on the farm that did not take vengeance on them after his own fashion.
The act of rebellion that drives Mr. Jones and the farmhands off the farm is referred to as the Battle of Cowshed by the animals. In this quote, Mr. Jones and the farmhands are symbols of the Russian monarchy. As the owner of the farm, Mr. Jones represents Tzar Nicholas II, the last tzar of Russia. His farmhands represent members of the Russian upper class. Just as all the animals drove the humans off the farm by violent means, the Russian lower class rebelled against the monarchy and the elite as a whole. In reality, the tzar and his family, in addition to many members of the Russian elite, were executed, while others fled the country.