Descirbe the goals of Islamic revitalization movements such as Wahhabism in the Arabian Peninsula and dan Fodio’s movement in West Africa and how were these regions affected by the new world order and were there alternative Islamic revitalization proposed?

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There are a broad number of movements that could be classified as Islamic revitalization. Let's start chronologically.

Usman dan Fodio's movement in Africa was one of the key Islamic revolutions in northern Africa during the 1700s and 1800s. Dan Fodio's goal of creating the Sokoto Caliphate, an entirely new state,...

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There are a broad number of movements that could be classified as Islamic revitalization. Let's start chronologically.

Usman dan Fodio's movement in Africa was one of the key Islamic revolutions in northern Africa during the 1700s and 1800s. Dan Fodio's goal of creating the Sokoto Caliphate, an entirely new state, was primarily based upon how he viewed the ruling Islamic elite in Africa as corrupt, out-of-touch, and not following the standards of Islamic law. He was one of several Islamic leaders who preached reform and even jihad, holy war, against the ruling authorities.

As European imperialism began to take Africa and the Middle East in a stronger and stronger grip by the late 1800s, many Islamic revitalization movements pushed back with the goal of independence. The pan-Arab movement, also known simply as the Arab movement, began to take shape by 1900 with the explicit goal of removing foreign powers from the Middle East and establishing a single Arabic and Islamic government throughout the entire Middle East— replacing both European power as well as the decaying Ottoman Empire. While the pan-Arab movement peaked during the 1960s, failing to unite Arabic nations under one banner, remnants of its ideologies remain, such as the Ba'ath Party in Syria and pre-war Iraq.

During the Cold War, both the capitalist west and the communist east sought to win over the Islamic world. Neither truly succeeded, although the United States' alliance with Israel made many Islamic governments more sympathetic to the Soviet Union (despite the fact that atheism is a major tenant of Soviet communism). Some Islamic movements formed as a result of "hot" conflicts during the Cold War, most notably the mujahadeen who fought the USSR in Afghanistan. The mujahadeen leaders like Osama bin Laden wanted to forge an Islamic world based on their own strict views in accordance with religious dogma like sharia law.

The Arab Spring of 2011 was believed to be a major Islamic revitalization movement at the time, since it was a series of mass protests across many different nations, demanding everything from an end to corruption to democratic government to more jobs for younger people. However, the Arab Spring failed to achieve many of its goals, and in some cases resulted in harsh crackdowns: the Arab Spring movement in Syria directly led to the (still ongoing) civil war.

Today, Islamic revitalization stands at a sort of crossroads. Many Islamic nations are liberalizing their policies; Saudi Arabia recently allowed women to get driver's licenses, which may sound minor but represents progress in a nation that permits very few women's rights. At the same time, fundamentalist groups like Al-Qaeda and ISIS seek "revitalization" in the form of return to Quranic principles, believing it crucial to reject western influences like democracy or rights for homosexuals. It remains to be seen whether Islamic countries from Morocco to Indonesia will follow the winds of change in the wider world, or whether they will turn inwards and decide that their own history and culture should be sacrosanct.

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Islamic "reform" or "revitalization" movements such as those led by Usman dan Fodio in current-day northern Nigeria and by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th century cleric whose followers successfully embedded themselves into the government and culture of modern-day Saudi Arabia, are invariably born out of resentments among non-establishment clerics and their followers over non-Islamic (read: Western) influences and corruption among ruling elites who don the veneer of Islam but not the commitments to Islamic principles. Usman dan Fodio led such a movement in the Hausa region of what is now Nigeria in an effort, led militarily by his brother, Abdullahi, in rejection to the corruption and perversions of Islam he witnessed among rulers throughout northern Nigeria. Dan Fodio's movement could be seen as a precursor to today's Islamic State (or ISIS, or ISIL, or Daesh), as well as to Afghanistan's Taliban movement, both of which exercise extreme brutality to enforce their dictates regarding Islamic law, or Sharia

The Wahhabi movement of modern-day Saudi Arabia is a more interesting case, as it exercises its influence in consort with that nation's ruling monarch, the House of Saud. A delicate, precarious balancing act exists within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with endemic corruption among some members of the royal family and the late-King Abdullah's efforts at liberalizing Saudi society counter-balanced by the continued influence of the fundamentalist Wahhabis. The House of Saud would fall very quickly if it ran afoul of the Wahhabi clerics who issue fatwas that are zealously enforced by the Wahhabi-directed Committees for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice, the groups of quasi-official fanatics who publicly and sometimes violently punish Saudi women for failing to adhere to strict codes of decency, such as the wearing of hijab and appearing in public with males to whom they are not related. 

Movements like the Taliban and the Islamic State, as with such earlier movements like that of dan Fodio and the Wahhabis, exist to replace corrupt secular or flawed Islamic regimes with ones that pass their litmus test for religious/ideological purity. Dan Fodio, interestingly, would probably fail today's test by the likes of the Islamic State because of the influence of Sufism, a mystical version of Islam, within his thinking. They would, however, applaud his efforts at replacing corrupt regimes with ones more committed to strict interpretations of Islamic law.

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