Candide Questions and Answers
by Voltaire

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Define and then compare the philosophical positions represented by Pangloss and Martin in Candide.

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In Chapter 19 of Voltaire's satirical work, Candide, Candide and his servant Cacambo encounter misfortunes until they reach Eldorado. However, although they are in a paradise, Candide cannot live without his love, Cunnegonde, and Cacambo has a "restless spirit."  So, they leave, and after a hundred days, they have lost many sheep and riches.  When Candide--who supports the philosophy of Pangloss, that it is the best of all worlds--sees a black slave who has been cruelly tortured, Candide renounces optimism, declaring it "a mania for saying things are well when one is in hell."  After he is robbed by a captain, Candide only dwells on the wickedness of men.  He books passage on a French ship and interviews men for the most unhappy man in the province for whom he will pay passage.  This man is Martin, a poor,old scholar, who has been robbed by his wife, beaten by his son, and abandoned by his daughter.

Unlike Candid, whoe has the hope of seeing Cunegonde, Martin has...

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