Define and then compare the philosophical positions represented by Pangloss and Martin in Candide.

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In Chapter 19 of Voltaire's satirical work, Candide, Candide and his servant Cacambo encounter misfortunes until they reach Eldorado. However, although they are in a paradise, Candide cannot live without his love, Cunnegonde, and Cacambo has a "restless spirit."  So, they leave, and after a hundred days, they have lost many sheep and riches.  When Candide--who supports the philosophy of Pangloss, that it is the best of all worlds--sees a black slave who has been cruelly tortured, Candide renounces optimism, declaring it "a mania for saying things are well when one is in hell."  After he is robbed by a captain, Candide only dwells on the wickedness of men.  He books passage on a French ship and interviews men for the most unhappy man in the province for whom he will pay passage.  This man is Martin, a poor,old scholar, who has been robbed by his wife, beaten by his son, and abandoned by his daughter.

Unlike Candid, whoe has the hope of seeing Cunegonde, Martin has...

(The entire section contains 509 words.)

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