The inertial mass of a body is its physical property that indicates the amount of its inertia (`F = m_i*a)` . The gravitational mass of a body is its physical property that bends (warps) the 4 dimensional space around it (`Gamma = G*m_g/R^2` ). It has been show that the inertial mass is equal to the gravitational mass (`m_i =m_g`) .
The volume of a body is the amount of 3 dimensional space filled by its mass (or the amount of space required by its mass to exist).
By definition time is a dimension of the 4 dimensional space. It is proportional to the amount of total entropy (disorder) that exists in the Universe. Time axis has only one absolute direction (from the past to the future - the way in which total entropy is increasing) in contrast with other 3 spatial dimensions which can take two absolute directions (towards positive and negative values)
Temperature is the physical property of a body that is proportional to the amount of internal energy of the body. The internal energy of the body is the sum of the energies of all the body constituents (molecules or atoms). Therefore temperature is the physical property that generally speaking is proportional to the kinetic energy of the molecules of a body.
Mass- is a way to descride the amount of matter something has, which is an amount that will never change. The eNotes link referenced below describes mass as "the quantity of matter an object possesses." (eNotes link below).
Weight- is typically confused as the same thing as mass, but its not, it is the force that gravatation exerts on a body.
For example, if you had a ball the mass of the ball is the amount of matter which is unchanging, it will always be the same no matter where you are. So its the same on earth, on the moon, anywhere. The weight would be different because the earth exerts a greater gravatational pull on the ball than the moon would.
Volume-the amount of space occupied by a material, and it is measured in cubic units. The way to find volume is: volume=length x width x depth or v=l x w x d
Time-is a measurement to figure out the duration of an event to indicate when something happened. The way this can be done is in seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years. However the measurement used in seconds which can then be divided into milliseconds and so forth.
Temperature-can have a couple of meanings the most common being the measure of warmth or coldness of an object/substance. There is a good explanation in the eNotes link to temperature http://www.enotes.com/topics/temperature
Hope that helps some!